절대평가

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절대평가

조선시대의 성균관(成均館)은 시험과 평가를 중요시했다. 성균관 유생들은 매월 초•중•하순으로 나눠 수시로 시험을 치렀다. 학칙에 해당하는 성균관 ‘학령(學令)’에 평가 방법을 규정해 놓을 정도였다. ‘시험을 평가하는 데 있어 해석이 막힘이 없으며 한 가지 경서의 의미를 다른 경서와 관련해서 깊이 이해한 경우가 ‘대통(大通)’이고, 한 가지 경서를 깊이 이해한 경우가 ‘통(通)’이며, 한 가지 경서의 한 장(章)의 의미를 정확하게 해석할 수 있는 경우가 ‘약통(略通)’이며, 한 장의 요지를 이해하고 있으나 설명이 미진한 경우가 ‘조통(粗通)’이며, 그 아래의 경우 벌을 준다’(서울대 교육연구소, 『한국교육사』).


내가 한 영작
ⓐSeonggyungwan, the foremost ⓑeducation institution of higher learning during the Joseon Dynasty, the emphasis was on tests and evaluations. Every month, scholars at the institute, whose name was later appropriated by Sungkyunkwan University, were divided into top, middle and bottom, and took tests in those groups. The institution was strict and even had regulations ⓒon method of evaluations. “In evaluations, a student who gives a smooth interpretation and demonstrates a deep understanding of the significance of one classic in relation to another earns an ‘excellent pass.’ A student who demonstrates deep understanding of one classic earns a ‘pass,’ while an accurate interpretation of one chapter of a classic earns a ‘satisfactory pass.’ An understanding of the point of one chapter but a lack of explanation earns a ‘low pass,’ and anything under a low pass merits punishment” ⓓ(Seoul National University Education Research Institute, “History of Korean Education”).

JoongAng Daily 에디터가 수정한 문장
At Seonggyungwan, the foremost institution of higher learning during the Joseon Dynasty, the emphasis was on tests and evaluations. Every month, scholars at the institute, whose name was later appropriated by Sungkyunkwan University, were divided into top, middle and bottom, and took tests in those groups. The institution was strict and even had regulations for evaluations. According to the book “History of Korean Education,” from the Seoul National University Education Research Institute: “In evaluations, a student who gives a smooth interpretation and demonstrates a deep understanding of the significance of one classic in relation to another earns an ‘excellent pass.’ A student who demonstrates deep understanding of one classic earns a ‘pass,’ while an accurate interpretation of one chapter of a classic earns a ‘satisfactory pass.’ An understanding of the point of one chapter but a lack of explanation earns a ‘low pass,’ and anything under a low pass merits punishment.”

Writing Tip
ⓐ Seonggyungwan → At Seonggyungwan 문장의 주어는 the emphasis임. Seonggyungwan은 명사인데 내용상 주어와 동격이 될 수 없고 장소를 나타내는 부사로 쓰여야 문맥이 통함.
ⓑ education → 삭제 뒤에 learning이란 단어가 나왔으므로, 중복되지 않게 education 을 뺌.
ⓒ on method of → for method는 내용상 불필요. 평가에 대한 규제나 규정이 아니라 평가에 쓰이는 평가를 위한 규정이라는 의미로 ‘for’를 사용하여 regulations for evaluations’로 바꿈.
ⓓ (Seoul National University Education Research Institute, “History of Korean Education”).→ According to the book “History of Korean Education,” from the Seoul National University Education Research Institute: 괄호를 넣어 그 출처를 밝히는 경우 이 글의 첫 문단부터가 출처인지, 아니면 the institution was strict and even had regulations for evaluations부터가 출처인지 혼동이 올 수 있음.



제2차 세계대전 중 미 공군은 스테나인(stanine)이라고 하는 9등급 척도를 개발한다. 사병들을 유사집단으로 분류해 임무를 부여하기 위해서다. 표준화 점수를 사용해 일정 점수 범위에 있는 사병을 한 집단으로 묶었다. 상위 4%를 1그룹, 그 다음 7%를 2그룹, 그 다음 12%를 3그룹으로 하는 식이다. 스테나인을 차용해 만든 게 현재 한국 학교의 상대평가에 의한 내신 9등급제다. 상대평가로 학생의 상대적 우열을 가리기는 쉽다. 그러나 단점이 수두룩하다.


내가 한 영작
During World War II, the U.S. Air Force developed a nine-level index called stanine, or Standard Nine. It was used to divide soldiers into groups based on their scores, and ⓐassigned duties according to group. Soldiers in the top 4 percent ⓑwas group 1, the next 7 percent was group 2, the next 12 percent was group 3, and so on. Korea’s nine-level school grade system ⓒbased on the standards borrowed from the stanine scale. It uses a curved grade system, which makes it easy to see exactly where students rank among their peers. However, there are also ⓓfull of cons.

JoongAng Daily 에디터가 수정한 문장
During World War II, the U.S. Air Force developed a nine-level index called stanine, or Standard Nine. It was used to divide soldiers into groups based on their scores, and duties were assigned according to group. Soldiers in the top 4 percent were placed in group 1, the next 7 percent in group 2, the next 12 percent in group 3, and so on. Korea’s nine-level school grade system is based on the standards borrowed from the stanine scale. It uses a curved grade system, which makes it easy to see exactly where students rank among their peers. However, there are also a number of cons.

Writing Tip
ⓐ assigned duties → duties were assigned 대등한 구조를 연결하는 and가 내용상 to 다음에 divide와 assigned를 이어주어야 하는데 assinged는 과거 형으로 부적절. 뒤의 구조까지 고려하여 duties를 주어로 하여 다시 문장을 만들어 줌.
ⓑ was → were placed in 주어가 복수이므로 동사는 were가 되어야 하고 ‘상위 4%인 사병들이 이미 그룹1에 속한 것이 아니라 ‘그룹1’에 배정이 된다’는 의미가 되어야 함.
ⓒ based on → is based on based가 동사로 쓰일 수도 있지만 여기서는 그 뒤에 목적어도 나오지 않고 의미도 ‘~에 기반을 둔’이므로 과거분사임.
ⓓ full of → a number of there는 유도부사로 그 뒤에 동사가 온 다음 주어가 오게 됨.
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