사랑의 매지금의 대학인 성균관에서조차 학생을 매로 다스렸다. 학칙에 해당하는 성균관 학령(學令)은 사실상 체벌 조항 일색이다. 그중 한 대목은 이렇다. 매일 명륜당에서 유생에게 전에 공부한 내용을 읽게 한다. 합격하지 못한 사람에겐 종아리를 매로 때리는 벌을 준다. 졸거나 산만해도 벌을 주고, 복습을 게을리하고 장기와 바둑, 사냥, 낚시 같은 유희를 즐겨도 벌을 준다. 이러니 과거(科擧)에 급제한 뛰어난 문장을 ‘삼십절초(三十折楚)’ ‘오십절초(五十折楚)’의 문장이라고 칭송할 만하다. 30자루, 50자루의 회초리가 꺾이는 초달을 겪고서 얻은 글이란 뜻이다.
내가 한 영작
Even in Sungkwunkwan, which was equivalent to a university of today, they used cane to control students. The school ordinance, ⓐwhich was equivalent to school regulations of today, was full of clauses ⓑthat allowed physical punishment on students. One of them, ⓒfor example, stipulated to test students on what they learned the previous day by reading them aloud at the lecture hall everyday. Those who failed ⓓto pass the test were ⓔgiven the cane on the calves ⓕas punishment. When they fall asleep or could not concentrate during class, they were punished. If students neglected to review what they learned, indulging in playing chess or go instead, otherwise if they enjoyed such games as hunting and fishing, they were punished. Therefore, people praised prominent essays that passed the state exam with honor as the products of 30-broken-rods or 50-broken-rods. It means that such beautiful essay or poetry could be written only after they went through severe physical punishments in which some 30 to 50 rods were broken.
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At Seonggyungwan, an elite institution of higher learning in the Joseon era, a cane was used to control the classroom. The school ordinance was full of clauses mandating corporal punishment. One of them stipulated that teachers test students every day on what they had learned the day before. Those who failed the test were caned on the calves. There was, in fact, no end to the number of infractions for which a student could be punished. When students fell asleep or could not concentrate during class, they were caned. If students neglected to review what they had learned, they were caned yet again. Essays were praised as either a 30-rod essay or 50-rod essay - the expressions refer to the number of rods that must have been broken to make the student write such a good paper.
ⓐ which was equivalent to school regulations of today, → 삭제
ⓑ that allowed physical punishment on students. → mandating corporal punishment. 체벌이라는 표현으로 corporal punishment를 사용함.
ⓒ for example, stipulated to test students on what they learned the previous day by reading them aloud at the lecture hall everyday. → stipulated that teachers test students every day on what they had learned the day before. Those who failed the test were caned on the calves. stipulate 다음에는 명기되는 내용을 that절의 형태로 표현할 수 있으나 ‘~하도록’을 뜻하는 to 부정사와 쓰는 것은 어색함.
ⓓ to pass → 삭제 fail 다음에 목적어로 명사형이 올 수 있으므로 생략하여 간결하게 표현.
ⓔ given the cane → caned 간략하게 수정.
ⓕ as punishment. → 회초리를 뜻하는 cane에 이미 처벌의 의미가 담겨있으므로 생략.
서양의 체벌 역사는 고대 그리스까지 거슬러 올라간다. 당시 체벌과 교육은 분리될 수 없는 것이었다. 아리스토텔레스가 『정치학』에서 “고분고분하지 않은 아이는 수치스럽게 매를 맞아야 한다”고 했을 정도다. 로마인들도 학교에서의 체벌을 당연한 교육수단으로 여겼다. 중세로 넘어와서도 체벌은 엄했다. ‘매를 아끼면 아이를 망친다’라는 서양 속담은 이때 나왔다. 신학자 마르틴 루터조차 “매는 좋은 아이를 만든다”고 설파했다. 그래서 영국은 19세기까지 매질(caning)을 교육제도로 보장했다. 체벌에 대한 부정적 시각과 함께 법률적으로 체벌을 금지하는 나라들이 많아진 건 1970년대 이후다.
내가 한 영작
ⓐThe history of physical punishment in the West can be traced back to ancient Greece. At that time, physical punishment could not be separated from education. Even Aristotle, in his book “Politics,” insisted that disobedient students should get the cane to their disgrace. Romans, too, considered physical punishment a proper means for education. In the Middle age, too, they gave stern physical punishment to students. The famous proverb, “Spare the rod and spoil the child,” ⓑoriginated from that era. Even Martin Luther King, Jr. preached ⓒthat cane produced a good child. Therefore, the British government allowed, till the 19th century, caning as a part of education system. Only after the 1970s, with the growth of a negative view on physical punishment, the number of countries which prohibited physical punishment started to grow.
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In the West, the history of physical punishment can be traced back to Ancient Greece. Aristotle wrote in his book, “Politics,” that disobedient students should get the cane. Romans, too, thought physical punishment was part of a proper education. And children in the Middle Ages were regularly subjected to lashings for bad behavior. The famous phrase, “spare the rod and spoil the child,” was coined in that era. Even Martin Luther King, Jr. preached that caning helped produce a good child. The British permitted caning until the 19th century. Only after the 1970s, as the outcry against corporal punishment intensified, did the number of countries banning physical punishment begin to grow.
ⓐ The history of physical punishment in the West → In the West, the history of physical punishment 서양에서의 체벌의 역사를 말하려는 것이 아니라, 서양에서 체벌의 역사가 그리스 시대까지 거슬러 간다는 것을 말하는 것임.
ⓑ originated from that era. → was coined in that era. 유래 했다기 보다는 그 곳에서 만들어진 것임, 동전을 주조한다는 어원의 coin은 ‘말을 만들어 내다’로도 쓰임.
ⓒ that cane produced → that caning helped produce 매 자체가 아니라 매질을 뜻하므로 caning을 사용, 매를 때린다고 반드시 좋은 아이를 길러내는 것이 아니라 좋은 아이를 기르는데 도움이 될 수 있는 것임.