반빙

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반빙

냉장고가 없었다고 인류가 한여름 무더위를 마냥 참고 있었던 건 아니다. 이란에서는 BC 4세기부터 야크찰(yakhchal)이라는 원뿔형 저장고가 등장했다. 섭씨 40도가 넘는 사막 한복판에서도 얼음을 먹을 수 있었던 것이다.
중국에선 춘추전국시대부터 한겨울 산과 강에서 얼음을 떼어다 돌집에 보관하는 방법이 사용됐다. 이를 벌빙(伐氷)이라 했는데, 고관 대작들에게만 허용됐으므로 벌빙이란 말이 곧 출세의 동의어로 사용되기도 했다. 『삼국유사』에 따르면 한국에서도 신라 3대 유리왕(노례왕) 때 이미 얼음을 저장하는 창고(藏氷庫)를 지었다 한다.


내가 한 영작
ⓐEven when there was no refrigerator, human beings did something to endure the heat. In the 4th century B.C. in Iran, there ⓑappeared yakhchal, a cone-shaped ice storeroom. They could consume ice in the middle of a desert where the temperature rose over 40 degrees Celsius. Since the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods in China, they used the methods of storing ice, cut from snow-covered mountains or frozen river in the middle of winter, in store houses built with stone. As cutting and storing ice was permitted only to those in high offices, the word beolbing, or cutting and storing ice, was once used as a synonym of success. According to ⓒ Samgukyusa, or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms ⓓof Korea, ⓕ they already built an ice storage house during the reign of King Yuri, the third king of Silla Dynasty.

JoongAng Daily 에디터가 수정한 문장
Before air-conditioning, humans in many countries invented devices to endure the heat.
In Iran in the 4th century B.C., there was the yakhchal, a cone-shaped room used to store ice. These ancient icehouses allowed people to keep ice in the middle of the desert. In China, too, ice cut from snow-covered mountains or frozen rivers was stored in icehouses built of stone during the Warring States Period. As only those in high offices were permitted to cut and store ice, the word beolbing, or cutting and storing ice, was used as a synonym for success. According to the history book Samguk Yusa, or “Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms,” icehouses existed during the reign of King Yuri, the third king of the Silla Dynasty (57 B.C.-935).

Writing Tip
ⓐ Even when there was no refrigerator, human beings did something to endure the heat → Before air-conditioning, humans in many countries invented devices to endure the heat. 냉장고가 여름의 열기를 견디는데 도움이 되지만 더위에 직접 대응하는 장치는 에어컨임, 에어컨을 먼저 이야기하고 그 다음에 얼음을 만드는 시설이나 장치를 언급하는 것이 자연스럽고 논리적임.
ⓑ appeared → was 등장한 것이 아니라 존재했던 것임.
ⓒ 없음 → the history book 독자 층을 고려해야 함, 삼국유사가 어떤 책인지를 명시할 필요가 있음.
ⓓ of Korea → 삭제 삼국시대의 세 나라는 시대 상 현대 한국에 속하지 않음
ⓕ they already built an ice storage house → icehouses existed 문법상 틀리지 않은 문장이나 사람들이 얼음 저장고를 지은 행위가 중요한 것이 아니라 얼음 저장고가 존재 했다는 것이 말하려는 내용임.



고려 이후엔 나라에서 저장한 얼음을 매년 여름마다 관원들에게 나눠줬다. 이것이 반빙(頒氷)이다. 귀한 것이므로 궁중과 종친, 당상관에게 우선 지급됐지만 은퇴한 관리나 장수하는 노인, 활인서에 입원한 환자들의 몫도 있어 사회 복지의 측면도 있었다.


내가 한 영작
ⓐAfter the establishment of Goryo Dynasty, the government distributed ice stored in ice store houses to government officials in summer every year. It was called banbing, or ice rationing. As ice in summer was rare and precious, the priority was given to the royal court, royal family members and high-ranking court officials. But ⓑas there were also shares assigned to retired officials, ⓒold people who led a long life and patients at government medical institutes, it also had social welfare aspects.

JoongAng Daily 에디터가 수정한 문장
Since the Goryo Dynasty (918-1392), the government distributed ice to government officials in summer. This was called banbing, or ice rationing. As ice was rare and precious in summer, the priority was given to the royal court, royal family members and high-ranking officials. But because ice was also doled out to retired officials, the elderly and patients at government medical institutes, there was a social welfare aspect to the service as well.

Writing Tip
ⓐ After the establishment of → Since the 정확하게 고려 왕조의 설립 이후 얼음을 보급한 것이 아니므로 establishment는 삭제, establishment를 삭제하면 고려왕조 이후를 뜻하게 되므로 고려시대 까지 포함하는 의미로 since로 대체.
ⓑ as there were also shares assigned → because ice was also doled out 무엇이 할당되는 몫인지 불확실하므로 얼음을 명시.
ⓒ old people who led a long life → the elderly 간략하고 이해하기 어렵지 않은 표현이 있을 때 굳이 길게 풀어 쓰지 않음, 나이든 사람이라는 표현으로 the elderly를 쓰면됨.
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