중앙데일리

Competition Declines as Industrial Concentration Heightens

Aug 31,2000

A recent study on the industrial structure of the domestic economy indicates that the economy has become less conducive to competition as industrial concentration has tightened following the 1997-1998 economic crisis.

The study was conducted by the Korea Development Institute under a commission by the Korea Fair Trade Commission. Over 591 companies in the manufacturing and mining industries were surveyed; their respective market shares were used to derive the Hirschman-Herfindahl Index (HHI), which measures the degree of market concentration in an industry.

To produce the HHI index, the respective percentage market shares of each competitor in an industry are first squared and then summed. A figure under 1,000 is usually satisfactory, while a figure between 1,000 and 1,800 indicates a market that is moderately concentrated. A figure over 1,800 denotes a market in which competition is severely restricted. Any transaction that increases an industry's HHI by over 100 points raises antitrust concerns.

The HHI takes into account the relative size and distribution of the firms in a market and approaches zero when a market consists of a large number of firms of relatively equal size. The HHI increases both as the number of firms in the market decreases and as the disparity in size between those firms increases.

The study found that the HHI for Korea's manufacturing and mining industries was 1,650 for 1997 and 1,920 for 1998, reversing a steady slide from 2,580 in 1981 to 1,930 in 1991 and 1,620 in 1996.

"We saw a lot of companies defaulting and eventually going out of business during the recession," explained Fair Trade Commission Antitrust Bureau Kang Dae-hyung. "That left industries with fewer competitors, which in effect heightened market concentration."

Among the companies with 500 billion won or more in production, 44 are in industries with HHIs of over 1,800. The Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation showed the highest degree of control over its sector.

The results also show that the combined production of the top 100 corporations represent nearly half of Korea's entire industrial output.

The top 100 of the 77,309 companies in the manufacturing and mining industries represented 48 percent of the market in terms of production and 21 percent in employment in 1998, which is a marked increase from 40 percent and 18 percent respectively in 1997.







by Suh Kyung-ho







외환위기후 국내산업 독과점 구조 심화

국내 산업의 독과점 구조가 외환위기를 겪으면서 다시 심화된 것으로 나타났다.특히 상위 1백대 기업이 전체 출하액의 절반을 차지하고 있어 공정 경쟁과 소비자 보호에 위협이 되고 있는 것으로 나타났다.
공정거래위원회는 31일 한국개발연구원(KDI)에 의뢰해 지난 1981년부터 98년까지 광공업(제조업 및 광업) 부문의 시장집중도를 조사·분석한 결과를 처음으로 공개했다.
5백91개 업종의 시장집중도를 조사한 결과 독과점 여부를 가늠할 수 있는 허핀달(HHI)지수는 81년 2천5백80,91년 1천9백30,96년 1천6백20으로 매년 감소하다 97년 1천6백50에 이어 98년 1천9백20으로 높아졌다.
HHI지수는 해당 업종 모든 사업자의 시장점유율을 제곱해 더한 것으로 독과점정도가 ^1천 미만이면 별 문제가 되지 않으나 ^1천∼1천8백은 다소 심하고 ^1천8백이상은 매우 심한 산업으로 분류된다.
강대형(姜大衡) 공정위 독점국장은 "97년과 98년 경제위기로 부도가 늘어나 기업수가 줄어들면서 살아남은 상위권 회사들의 독과점 정도는 더욱 심해져 시장집중도가 다시 높아진 것"이라고 분석했다.
연간 출하액 5천억원 이상인 업종 가운데 HHI지수가 1천8백이상인 업종은 44개로,국가독점 사업인 한국담배인삼공사의 독과점 정도가 가장 심했다.
상위 1백대 기업이 전체 광공업(총 7만7천3백9개)에서 차지하는 비중은 출하액기준 47.8%,고용 기준 21.0%로 97년의 39.6%와 17.5%에 비해 크게 높아졌다.








dictionary dictionary | 프린트 메일로보내기 내블로그에 저장