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Remember the sacrifices of April 1960

Apr 01,2005


World War I changed the concept of conventional warfare. Before 1914, a war used to be a collection of tales of bravery. When war broke out, young French and German men voluntarily enlisted, dreaming of becoming heroes. However, the cavalrymen โ€•adorned with gold-plated buttons and feathered hats โ€•were nowhere to be found. Soldiers solemnly marching to the drums of the military band were immediately slaughtered.

The invention of the machine gun changed the way war was waged. Rushing into a machine gun means an immediate death.

New wars became defensive battles of attrition rather than offense-oriented. Trenches and barbed wires replaced shields. In the early stage of the war, French and German armies clashed at the Marne River, north of Paris, and the battle lasted for four years until the war ended.

The two armies dug out trenches several hundreds kilometers-long. Officers ordered young soldiers out of the trenches only to be killed by the enemy fire, and the war of attrition continued. Between the muddy hills, millions of soldiers were killed. The Battle of the Marne River is remembered as one of the shameful battlefields in the history of war that revealed the recklessness and brutality of war.

Among the survivors on the front, two soldiers left their marks for world history. One is Adolf Hitler and the other is Erich Maria Remarque. Hitler enlarged the madness of World War I. Mr. Remarque started an anti-war movement with his novel, โ€œAll Quiet on the Western Front,โ€ based on his personal experiences in the war. In the midst of the devastation and shock from the war, Europe began to look back on itself. At the turn of the 20th century, the pride of the imperialism and industrial revolution was stranded.

T.S. Eliotโ€™s poem, โ€œThe Waste Landโ€ reflects the gloomy times. The poem, which was published in 1922, begins, โ€œApril is the cruelest month, breeding/Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing/Memory and desire, stirring/Dull roots with spring rain.โ€

Because of the April 19 student revolution, many Koreans agree April is the cruelest month. The month of April 1960 was truly cruel, as so many young people shed innocent blood. Just as poet Kim Su-yeong wrote in, โ€œBlue Sky,โ€ Koreans had wondered, โ€œWhy does freedom/ Have a scent of blood/ Why a revolution/Is lonely/ Why a revolution/ Has to be so lonely.โ€ Two generations later, April 2005 should not be cruel. April deserves to be a month of brilliant dreams.

The writer is the JoongAng Ilboโ€™s London correspondent.


by Oh Byung-sang

์ž”์ธํ•œ 4์›”

์ œ1์ฐจ ์„ธ๊ณ„๋Œ€์ „์€ ์ „์Ÿ์˜ ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ๋ฐ”๊พธ์—ˆ๋‹ค. 1914๋…„ ์ด์ „๊นŒ์ง€ ์ „์Ÿ์€ ์˜์›…์˜ ๋ฌด์šฉ๋‹ด์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ „์Ÿ์ด ํ„ฐ์ง€์ž ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค.๋…์ผ ์ Š์€์ด๋“ค์€ ์˜์›…์„ ๊ฟˆ๊พธ๋ฉฐ ์ž์›์ž…๋Œ€ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ๊ธˆ์žฅ ๋‹จ์ถ”์™€ ๊นƒํ„ธ ๋ชจ์ž๋ฅผ ์“ด ๊ธฐ๋งˆ๋ณ‘์€ ์ฐพ์•„๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ตฐ์•…๋Œ€์˜ ๋ถ์†Œ๋ฆฌ์— ๋งž์ถฐ ๊ทผ์—„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ง„๊ตฐํ•˜๋˜ ๊ตฐ์ธ์€ ๊ณง๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋Œ€๋Ÿ‰ ์‚ด๋ฅ™๋‹นํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์ „์Ÿ์˜ ์–‘์ƒ์€ ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด์˜ ๋“ฑ์žฅ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐ”๋€Œ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด ์•ž์œผ๋กœ์˜ ๋Œ๊ฒฉ์€ ๊ณง ์ฃฝ์Œ์ด๋‹ค. ์ „์Ÿ์€ ๊ณต๊ฒฉ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ˆ˜๋น„ ์œ„์ฃผ ์ง€๊ตฌ์ „์ด ๋๋‹ค. ์ฐธํ˜ธ์™€ ์ฒ ์กฐ๋ง์ด ๋ฐฉํŒจ๋ฅผ ๋Œ€์‹ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ „์Ÿ ์ดˆ๊ธฐ ๋…์ผ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค๊ตฐ์ด ๋งˆ์ฃผ์นœ ํŒŒ๋ฆฌ ๋ถ์ชฝ ๋งˆ๋ฅธ(Marne)๊ฐ• ์ „ํˆฌ๋Š” ์ „์Ÿ์ด ๋๋‚  ๋•Œ๊นŒ์ง€ ๋ฌด๋ ค 4๋…„์—ฌ๊ฐ„ ๊ณ„์†๋๋‹ค. ์ˆ˜๋ฐฑkm์— ๊ฑธ์ณ ์ฐธํ˜ธ๊ฐ€ ๊ตฌ์ถ•๋๋‹ค. ์žฅ๊ต๋“ค์ด ์–ด๋ฆฐ ๋ณ‘์‚ฌ๋“ค์„ ์œ„ํ˜‘ํ•ด ์ฐธํ˜ธ์—์„œ ๋‚ด๋ชฐ์•„ ์  ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด์— ์“ฐ๋Ÿฌ์ง€๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š” ์†Œ๋ชจ์ „์ด ๋ฐ˜๋ณต๋๋‹ค. ์ง„ํ™ํˆฌ์„ฑ์ด ๊ตฌ๋ฆ‰์„ ์‚ฌ์ด์— ๋‘๊ณ  ์ˆ˜๋ฐฑ๋งŒ ๋ช…์ด ์ฃฝ์–ด๊ฐ”๋‹ค. ์ „์‚ฌ(ๆˆฐๅฒ)์—์„œ ์ „์Ÿ์˜ ๋ฌด๋ชจํ•จ๊ณผ ์ž”ํ˜นํ•จ์„ ๊ทน๋ช…ํžˆ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค€ '๋ถ€๋„๋Ÿฌ์šด ์ „ํˆฌ'์˜ ๋Œ€๋ช…์‚ฌ๋กœ ๋‚จ์•˜๋‹ค.

๋‘ ๋ณ‘์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์ด ์ „์„ ์—์„œ ์‚ด์•„๋‚จ์•„ ์„ธ๊ณ„์‚ฌ์— ์ด๋ฆ„์„ ๋‚จ๊ฒผ๋‹ค. ํžˆํ‹€๋Ÿฌ์™€ ๋ ˆ๋งˆ๋ฅดํฌ๋‹ค. ํžˆํ‹€๋Ÿฌ๋Š” 1์ฐจ๋Œ€์ „์˜ ๊ด‘๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ํ™•๋Œ€ ์žฌ์ƒ์‚ฐํ–ˆ๊ณ , ๋ ˆ๋งˆ๋ฅดํฌ๋Š” ์ฐธ์ „ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์„ ์†Œ์žฌ๋กœ ํ•œ ์†Œ์„ค '์„œ๋ถ€์ „์„  ์ด์ƒ ์—†๋‹ค'๋กœ ๋ฐ˜์ „์—ฌ๋ก ์„ ๋ถˆ๋Ÿฌ์ผ์œผ์ผฐ๋‹ค. ์ „์Ÿ์˜ ํํ—ˆ์™€ ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ ์†์—์„œ ์œ ๋Ÿฝ์€ ์Šค์Šค๋กœ๋ฅผ ๋˜๋Œ์•„๋ณด๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ข…ํšก๋ฌด์ง„ํ•˜๋˜ ์ œ๊ตญ์ฃผ์˜์™€ ์‚ฐ์—…ํ˜๋ช…์˜ ์ž๋ถ€์‹ฌ์ด 20์„ธ๊ธฐ ๋ฒฝ๋‘์— ์ขŒ์ดˆํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

T S ์—˜๋ฆฌ์—‡์˜ 'ํ™ฉ๋ฌด์ง€(่’่•ชๅœฐ)'๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์•”์šธํ•œ ์‹œ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋ฐ˜์˜ํ•œ๋‹ค. 22๋…„ ๋ฐœํ‘œ๋œ ์žฅํŽธ ์„œ์‚ฌ์‹œ๋Š” "4์›”์€ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ž”์ธํ•œ ๋‹ฌ/์ฃฝ์€ ๋•…์—์„œ ๋ผ์ผ๋ฝ์„ ํ‚ค์›Œ๋‚ด๊ณ /๊ธฐ์–ต๊ณผ ์š•๋ง์„ ๋’ค์„ž์œผ๋ฉฐ/๋ด„๋น„๋กœ ์ž ๋“  ๋ฟŒ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋’คํ”๋“ ๋‹ค"๋กœ ์‹œ์ž‘๋œ๋‹ค. ์ƒ๋ช…์ด ์•ฝ๋™ํ•˜๋Š” 4์›”์ด ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ž”์ธํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์ฃฝ์Œ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ์‚ถ์„ ๊ฐ•์š”๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” ํ˜„์‹ค ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ผ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋‚˜๋ผ์—์„œ '4์›”์€ ์ž”์ธํ•œ ๋‹ฌ'์ด๋ž€ ์—ญ์„ค์ด ๋งŽ์€ ๊ณต๊ฐ์„ ์–ป๊ฒŒ ๋œ ๊ณ„๊ธฐ๋Š” ์•„๋งˆ๋„ 4.19์ผ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์ Š์Œ์ด ๋ฌด๊ณ ํ•œ ํ”ผ๋ฅผ ๋ฟŒ๋ ค์•ผ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์—์„œ 1960๋…„์˜ 4์›”์€ ์ •๋ง ์ž”์ธํ–ˆ๋‹ค. "์–ด์งธ์„œ ์ž์œ ์—๋Š”/ํ”ผ์˜ ๋ƒ„์ƒˆ๊ฐ€ ์„ž์—ฌ ์žˆ๋Š”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ/ํ˜๋ช…์€/์™œ ๊ณ ๋…ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์ธ๊ฐ€๋ฅผ/ํ˜๋ช…์€ ์™œ ๊ณ ๋…ํ•ด์•ผํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ธ๊ฐ€๋ฅผ"(๊น€์ˆ˜์˜์˜ 'ํ‘ธ๋ฅธ ํ•˜๋Š˜์„'์ค‘) ๊ณ ๋ฏผํ•˜๋˜ ์‹œ์ ˆ ์–˜๊ธฐ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋‘ ์„ธ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๊ฑด๋„Œ 2005๋…„ 4์›”์€ ๋”์ด์ƒ ์ž”์ธํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•„์•ผ ๋งˆ๋•…ํ•˜๋‹ค. ๋น›๋‚˜๋Š” ๊ฟˆ์˜ ๊ณ„์ ˆ์ด์–ด์•ผ ๋งž๋‹ค.

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